Cleopatra, the Last Queen of Egypt

Biography bits

1.Born in 70 or 69 B.C., Cleopatra was a daughter of Ptolemy XII (Auletes).

2. Full name was Cleopatra Thea Philopator VII.

3. She wasn’t an Egyptian, but was of Macedonian Greek origin, descendant of Ptolemy I, a Greek general of Alexander the Great.

4. She could speak Egyptian and another 8 languages.

5. She had three sisters; two older and one younger.

6. In 51 B.C. the Egyptian throne passed to 18-year-old Cleopatra and her 10-year-old brother, Ptolemy XIII.

7. She was forced to flee Egypt for Syria in 49 B.C.

8. She returned the following year to face her brother’s forces.

9. She sought Caesar’s support, sneaking into the royal palace rolled up in a carpet.

10. Around 47 B.C. she gave birth to a son, Ptolemy Caesar.

11. Sometime in 46-45 B.C., Cleopatra traveled to Rome to visit Caesar.

12. After Caesar was murdered in March 44 B.C., Cleopatra went back to Egypt.

13. She had strongly identified herself with the goddess Isis, the sister-wife of Osiris and mother of Horus.

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14. She sent 4 Roman legions stationed in Egypt by Caesar to support the second triumvirate of Caesar’s allies (Mark Antony, Octavian and Lepidus).

15. In 42 B.C. Mark Antony agreed to protect Egypt and Cleopatra’s crown.

16. In 40 B.C., after Mark Antony’s return to Rome, Cleopatra gave birth to twins, Alexander Helios (sun) and Cleopatra Selene (moon).

17. Egypt grew more prosperous under Cleopatra’s rule.

18. In 37 B.C. Antony came to Egypt to obtain funds for his long-delayed military campaign against the kingdom of Parthia.

19. In 36 B. C. Cleopatra gave birth to another son, Ptolemy Philadelphos.

20. In a public celebration in 34 B.C. known as the “Donations of Alexandria,” Antony declared Caesarion as Caesar’s son and rightful heir and awarded land to each of his children with Cleopatra.

21. In late 32 B.C., the Roman Senate stripped Antony of all his titles, and Octavian declared war on Cleopatra.

22. With Alexandria under attack from Octavian’s forces, Mark Antony committed suicide on the battlefield after being misinformed about the death of Cleopatra.

19. On August 12, 30 B.C., after burying Antony and meeting with the victorious Octavian, Cleopatra committed suicide by making an asp,
Egyptian cobra, bite her in the breast.

20. Cleopatra’s body was buried with Antony’s, leaving Octavian to celebrate his conquest of Egypt. Egypt became a Roman territory.

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